Hybrid and Electric Cars

Chad K

7th

 

 

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Research Paper

 

Production of Hybrid and Electric Cars

†††† Did you know that three-fourths of air pollution is caused by gas-powered vehicles? Not only do emissions from gas vehicles harm the air but it also harms us! Gasoline emissions can cause sickness such as asthma, lymphoma, and lung cancer(10). As a result of air pollution, scientists are using hybrid and electric car technologies to solve human transportation needs. Most automobile companies are developing hybrid and electric cars to reduce emissions and lower air pollution.

†††† In the late 1800s, most people owned gasoline cars because they were inexpensive to fuel and the high demand made them cheap to produce. In recent years, oil has constantly increased in price due to the high consumption rate. Electric and hybrid cars are now inexpensive to run and maintain because of their high efficiency and are not dependent on oil. Now more car companies are developing newer hybrid cars in order to catch the customersí attention.††††

When gasoline cars came into the transportation picture in the early 1900s, people did not know about the harmful emissions the cars produced (8). It was not until recently that scientists discovered that many gases that cause global warming are found in the emissions from gas-powered vehicles(3). Now that people know this important information they can change their unhealthy ways and drift to more environmentally friendly cars to carry out their transportation needs.

Some people, unfortunately, are ignorant of how fuel efficient hybrids are. Consumers wonder how hybrids can be fuel efficient if they still use gas. The reason hybrids are efficient is because gasoline is not the main fuel. They also have a large battery to supply power. Most hybrid batteries are lithium-ion batteries because of their tendency to lose charge slowly (1). A hybrid uses its fully-charged battery for about forty miles, which is the average trip length for most people (1). Although this battery plays a huge part in a hybrid, it is not the only thing that makes a hybrid efficient. Another energy saver is that a hybrid never uses its fuel to idle (4). For instance, when a hybrid is stopped at a red light, the engine temporarily turns off and saves fuel (4). The last reason people save fuel and money is that at lows speeds the electric motor turns on and saves valuable gas when it isnít needed.

When someone thinks of a hybrid car they think of a fuel efficient car that runs on both gasoline and electricity. This is true but it isnít specific on how hybrids use this energy. A normal hybrid such as the Prius has a lithium-ion battery and a small gas motor. Most hybrid cars use lithium-ion batteries because they lose their charge slowly (5). A hybrid uses its electric battery for about forty miles and then it switches to its gas motor (1). While a hybrid runs on gasoline it spins rotors and charges the electric battery (1). Some hybrids are plug-in or can be plugged into an outlet and charged this way (6).

Compared to electric and hybrid cars, a gas car is inefficient. Gas motors can be heavy and almost twice the size of a hybridís engine (4. Gas cars make large amounts of harmful emissions as byproducts. They may get terrible miles per gallon. Gas-powered cars also cause people to spend a large amount on fuel that they could be spending elsewhere. Gas prices are increasingly rising so in a few years gas car owners are going to have to pay even more for fuel.

Hybrid and electric cars have been since they were first designed. Interestingly, when the first cars were made, electric cars were the more popular compared to gas cars. In the 1880s, electric cars were favored over gas cars because they were quiet, did not release any gasses, and had a low maintenance cost (8). The first person to sell an electric car was William Morrison, who sold a twelve-seated electric wagon that could travel at speeds of fourteen mph. The first American electric car company was the Duryea Brothers, and they produced and sold thirteen electric cars.

Electric batteries in the late 1890s were not as efficient as they are now. They were made of lead plates and acid in a water-tight container (6). Most cars consisted of roughly 20 to 30 of these batteries, to make them run (6). Even though they had so many batteries they werenít powerful and the cars could only go about fifteen miles per hour (6). Charles Jeantaud a, French scientist, had an idea to strengthen the batteries by making them completely waterproof and able to resist bumps and jolts better (6).

The first hybrid car was invented during the year 1969, as an experiment. It could reach a speed of forty miles an hour (6). The first cars were made in an effort to increase air quality (6). Other early prototypes in the 1980s were heavy but had up to one-hundred miles per gallon (5). What brought hybrids into use was the inclining gas prices (8). Today newer hybrids are fairly light but still have up to one-hundred miles per gallon.

In the earlier years of aviation history like the late 1890s, gas powered cars were not as favorable as the early electric cars. The reason for this is that the gas cars gave off a horrible odor and smoke (6). Also they had a high repair and maintenance price, because the engines were so difficult to get to (6). Then in recent years people found out about the ecological problems they can cause. This leads to the switch to more environmentally-friendly vehicles.

When hybrid cars were first invented, the efficiency was not that as good as the modern hybrids (8). Now the improved hybrid and electric cars to help get us out of our oil crisis (1). Scientists are currently trying to find lithium-ion batteries large enough for hybrid and electric cars.

Once we design more fuel efficient hybrids, we can stop using gas cars and stop polluting our environment. Once we start producing hybrid cars on a large scale, the price will lower and people can afford to use them in everyday life. Hybrid and electric cars have the potential to be the technology we can depended our transportation needs on.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fine Art Connection

 

http://www.carsart.com/carstore/uploads/1108739944_large-image_1910packardmodel18touring_l1.jpg

 

I chose this painting to symbolize how far weíve come over the years as far as cars go. This car was made in the early 1930s, was gas powered and probably created tons of pollution. Now we have cars that have around 100 miles per gallon and use barely any gasoline. In conclusion our cars have increased dramatically over the years in efficiency and environmentally. This painting can be found at http://www.carsart.com/cgi-bin/cars.pl?fid=1108739944&cgifunction=form††

 

 

 

 

 

Poetry Connection

 

Donít Pollute the Earth

Car pollution, trees fall,

Soon there will be no world at all.

Gas and smog pollute the air

business men do not care.

What are we doing? It's not fair!

Fatal gasses everywhere.

Water pollution, dolphins die,

Air pollution, birds don't fly.

If we don't find a solution

We will die from pollution.

 

So put down that pint of bitter

And go pick up some deadly litter.

Prime minister stop drinking your tea

And stop the oil flooding into the sea!

What's happened to the animals, theyíve all fainted

As all the water's contaminated.

Call the doctor I feel so sick

Because the world is now toxic.

Where's it coming from? What's the answer?

Must we all die of cancer?

 

Cars are colorful, cars are nice

But soon they will be our sacrifice.

We need a solution to the pollution

We need to have a revolution.

Pollution is a real big crime

And it waste's all our time.

So don't throw things like foil

Because they don't rot in the soil.

Now this is where my poem ends

Now go tell all your friends.

 

 

By: Closingwindows
© Alan Brooke, All rights reserved

This poem, written by Alan Brooke is called Donít Pollute the Earth shows what we are doing to the Earth and what will happen in the future if we donít stop polluting. We can end up harming the Earth and all the living things on it. In conclusion this poem symbolizes the importance of clean technology and stopping pollution. This poem can be found at http://www.thatpoem.com/content/view/888/1/

 

 

 

Music Connection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photography Connection

 

 

http://cache.gizmodo.com/assets/2006/06/prius.jpg

 

 

I chose this picture of the Toyota Prius because it symbolizes most hybrid cars. It is one of the most known hybrids and is very important for the development of other hybrids. The Prius runs on a large lithium-ion battery and is very fuel efficient. This picture can be found at http://cache.gizmodo.com/assets/2006/06/prius.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

 

Works Cited

Anderson, Curtis D., and Judy Anderson. Electric and Hybrid Cars A History. North Carolina: McFarland, 2005.

Brian, Marshall. "How Hybrids Work." How Stuff Works. 2007. 29 Jan. 2009 <www.howstuffworks.com>.

Csere, Csaba. "The Steering Column." Car and Driver Magazine. May 2008: 11-12.

"End Gas Pain Forever." Myers Motors. 2 Jan. 2009. 21 Jan. 2009 <www.myersmotors.com/benefits_dump.html>.

Granholm, Jenifer M. "Put Green Cars On The Highway." Newsweek Incorporated. 31 Dec. 2008, 2009 Issue ed. Galegroup.com. 31 Dec. 2008. 21 Jan. 2009 <http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IACDocuments&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodid=SRC1&docid=A191769383&source=gale&srcprod=SRCG&userGroupName=nort6415&version=1.0>.

Hall, Kevin G. "High Oil Prices Fuel Development of New Hybrid Batteries." McClathy Newspapers. [Glenview, IL] 7 June 2008.

"Let's Start Breathing Cleaner Air Today." Myers Motors. 3 Jan. 2009. 21 Jan. 2009. <www.myersmotors.com/benefits_dump.html>.

Motavalli, Jim. Forward Drive The Race to Build "Clean Cars" for the Future. San Francisco, Ca: Siera Club Books, 2000.

Vanderwerp, Dave. "A Hybrid That Has No Batteries." Car and Driver Magizine Feb. 2009: 24-25.